Perchlorate, Larry Ladd

ZERO WASTE is the recycling of all materials back into nature or the marketplace in a manner that protects human health and the environment.


PERCHLORATE: (under construction)

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Larry Ladd: Nation's foremost activist on Perchlorate: 

What caused the recent outbreak of Eastern Equine Encephalitis? by Larry Ladd

 Perchlorate aerosols from solid rocket tests, military training, and hard rock mine blasting falling into maple swamp ecosystems are possibly part of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis problem. 

With characterisitic CIA irony, use of perchlorate aerosols as cloudseeding nuclei in Operation Popeye over the Ho Chi Minh Trail would make green leafy vegetables weaken, not strengthen, the consumer. While the anti-thyroid effects of perchlorate are well studied and well advertised, the immunosuppressive effects on salt-sensitive human beta defensin 2 on the frontier of the immune system remains unaddressed in the open literature. See In particular, the question arises as to whether perchlorate is used as a binder in the bioweapon described on page 144-145 here: I say this as a former graduate student of a CIA agent whose 1970s dissertation involved cataloguing the plants grown in gardens in an Afghan valley. He observed the villagers from prepositioned hunting blinds built on the opposite side of the valley. The department at the time was researching improved infrared detection of humans at high mountain altitudes in the Pamirs for future use in the Predator drone program.   

Most recent cases of human EEE are downwind from perchlorate aerosol generating activities.

The county level incidence map from the CDC:

Present and historic perchlorate sources with human Eastern Equine Encephalitis cases downwind include, from north to south: Aerospace perchlorate recycled in slurry for hard rock mine blasting in the Mesabi Range and Upper Michigan peninsula; perchlorate manufacturing at Hooker Chemical in Niagara Falls where the aerosols seeded clouds over Lake Ontario that dropped lake effect precipitation in Lake Oneida in western New York, with similar effects from the Trent, Ontario fireworks/Air Force complex over on the Canadian side; Beloit WI area railroad flare, fireworks, and munitions manufacturing that straddled the Illinois-Wisconsin border and was deposited in southwest Michigan via lake effect as well; Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama with intensification down wind at Fort Bragg, North Carolina; Fort Benning in Georgia; and platform H-1 at the Stennis Spaceport on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. Hooker and Stennis ceased operations in 1974, but disturbance of former perchlorate sites, e.g. the Rolls Royce jet engine test stand at Stennis H-1, may produce sufficient aerosol to sicken unlucky individuals downwind.

Current data on EEE distribution available here:

Potential mechanism: The Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infects humans via the fibroblasts deep beneath the skin. But first the virus needs to get to the fibroblast.

The first line of defense against pathogens in mosquito saliva is human beta defensin 2, which guards the bottom-most layer of cells in the epidermis. Human beta defensin 2 is disabled by increased osmolarity via high concentrations of salt, and perchlorate is a super-salt (chaotropic). The half life for perchlorate in rat blood is 8 hours, but perchlorate persists for 32 hours in rat skin. Loss of bicarbonate from diarrhea will cause perchlorate excretion by the kidneys to halt, allowing perchlorate to persist in the skin.

If human EEE appears in high numbers next summer in eastern Arkansas, northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northern Louisiana, the cause is more likely a new source of perchlorate aerosols rather than runaway global warming. The big rockets put out a lot of aerosol so care must be taken to contain the exhaust

World War II efforts by Yale to weaponize Eastern Equine Encephalitis mosquitos by raising the susceptibility of a mouse through increasing osmolarity: in case the Nazis established a beachhead on the Atlantic coast.

From the archives....ZWA REPORTS: Rocket Propellant Chemical Found in Drinking Water 
UPDATE: Well #9  was closed prior to AWWSC's testing and finding perchlorate contamination at 5 parts per billion (ppb). According to the EPA, no additional perchlorate contamination has been found in area wells or in Well #9. 

YARDLEY, PA / Dec. 11, 1998 - Residents in upscale Yardley-Lower Makefield in Bucks County, Pennsylvania have sometimes been considered "high fliers," but no one suspected that a chemical used in the manufacture of propellant for rockets and missiles would be found their drinking water.

In 1997, the American Water Works Service Company (AWWSC), parent of the Pennsylvania Water Company, tested for perchlorate. According to EPA’s webpage for Perchlorate, "Ammonium perchlorate is manufactured as an oxidizer component in solid propellant for rockets, missiles, and fireworks. The concerns surrounding perchlorate contamination involves its ability to inhibit iodide anion uptake by the thyroid. This results in decreased thyroid hormone production which can affect metabolism, growth, and development ..(it) is exceedingly mobile in aqueous systems and can persist for many decades under typical groundwater and surface water conditions."

Of AWWSC’s four hundred wells across the country, 10 tested positive for perchlorate contamination, including Well # 9 in Lower Makefield Township. The well is located a few yards from the company’s water tower.

It appears the water company did not bring the contamination to the attention of local, county, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP), or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials in the Philadelphia office. An activist from California brought it to the attention of ZWA’s Director and local resident, Lynn Landes, who contacted officials.

Landes was stunned by their reaction. They informed her that they will make no plans to notify the public, or private well owners, nor conduct testing of private wells, the contaminated well, or a nearby closed dump with a history of leaking contamination. Township officials are still gathering information.

"It appears that the county, state, and federal regulatory officials have adopted a "Don’t Test, Don’t Tell" policy," says Landes.

Currently, the EPA does not require states to test for perchlorate, nor has the agency set a "maximum contaminant level" (MCL), a federal designation that allows a set level of contamination in drinking water. The often arbitrary nature of  MCL’s concerns many health and environmental activists. Groundwater remediation technologies for perchlorate have recently been developed.

Perchlorate has been found in 13 states. Large volumes were disposed in Nevada, California, and Utah since the 1950s. As a result of widespread contamination, the federal Interagency Perchlorate Steering Committee was formed in January 1998.

Contact: Lynn Landes, ZWA, 215-629-3553 /